Friday, September 17, 2010

Does the Koran Teach an Ethic of Love to All Mankind?

I Googled the question "Why don't moderate Muslims condemn extremists?" I found that question posted and Yahoo Answers, and several replies, from Muslims that said, in so many words, that the Koran actually supported a hard line view of unbelievers (anyone not a true Muslim).

Never one to take someone else word for it, I found an online Koran concordance site and did my own research.  Didn't the Koran teach an ethic of love towards all men, even non-Muslims?  The New Testament did.

I actually had hoped to find several such verses and post them as sort of a "so there" to the extremists.

The Koran concordance site had every major English translation of the Koran. But I limited by research to the four orthodox translations, figuring a non-orthodox one might play fast and loose with the text. Likewise I didn't consult the non-Muslim translators, whose accuracy I have no idea about one way or the other.

Even among the four orthodox translations there were some considerable differences at times on the "spin"--particularly between the Hilali-Khan (a sort of Amplified Koran but with a hard line spin at times, and a popular English translation despite criticisms it has received as hard line) and the Shakir translation--which seemed to soften hard line stances at times. The Pickthall and Yusuf Ali (the one my eye kept going to for some reason) where the other two orthodox translations the concordance searched.

I decided to simply search for the word "love" in the Koran in these four English translations.

I particularly wanted to find any use of the word in relation to loving our fellow man in general, especially when that love might be toward a non-Muslim.

So in my cut and paste collection of Koran verses containing "love" I omitted occurrences those that spoke of:
  • Love toward Allah
  • Allah's love toward Islamic believers
  • Islamic believers love for one another
  • The love of things (whether good or bad)
None of these had relevancy to the question at hand:  does the Koran teach an ethic of love toward all mankind, even those who do not believe in Islam or believe in other faiths?


The result surprised me. Here are the results after scanning the entire Koran in 4 orthodox translations to English:

"It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West, but righteousness is this that one should believe in Allah and the last day and the angels and the Book and the prophets, and give away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and the beggars and for (the emancipation of) the captives, and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; and the performers of their promise when they make a promise, and the patient in distress and affliction and in time of conflicts -- these are they who are true (to themselves) and these are they who guard (against evil). 2:177

Observations: Who are these "needy?"  Are they all mankind or just fellow Muslims in view in 2:177?  Abundant other verses clearly indicate that this charity is only toward Islamic believers who are needy, as elsewhere all unbelievers are to be avoided, despised, or put in chains, etc.  Cf. 76:004 where in a similar context of charity (76:008) Muslims are told regarding non-Muslims, “Lo! We have prepared for disbelievers manacles and carcans and a raging fire." Obviously in 76:008 it is only the Muslim poor—true believers in Allah receive the above mentioned charity.  Add to that verses like 48:29, "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. And those with him are hard against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves."  Ethics only extend to fellow Muslims in the Koran.  Some have argued the context is only pertaining to those disbelievers who perpetually attacked Muslims for their faith, but contrast this to the New Testament "love your enemies."  2:177 does not teach an ethic of love for all mankind regardless of creed.    Conclusion:  no

"By no means shall you attain to righteousness until you spend (benevolently) out of what you love; and whatever thing you spend, Allah surely knows it. 3:092 Shakir translation

Observations: above was the Shakir translation with the insertion of the word “benevolently,” but the Hilali-Khan has an alternative spin:

By no means shall you attain Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc., it means here Allah's Reward, i.e. Paradise), unless you spend (in Allah's Cause) of that which you love; and whatever of good you spend, Allah knows it well.

The Pickthall translation is neutral on the object and purpose of the “spending.”

Ye will not attain unto piety until ye spend of that which ye love; And whatsoever ye spend, Allah is Aware thereof.

Observations:  So 3:092 is doubtful to be speaking of general benevolence toward all mankind.  Conclusion:  no

"So Allah gave them the reward of this world and better reward of the hereafter and Allah loves those who do good (to others). 3:148 in the Shakir translation, but…

Observations: the Shakir translation alone of the orthodox strives to soften hard line feelings toward unbelievers and generalize “doing good” and “love” to include others in general. Usually it is at odds with the other three orthodox translations, or inserts the word “love” when the others do not. The Pickthall reads: “So Allah gave them the reward of the world and the good reward of the Hereafter. Allah loveth those whose deeds are good.” which in context is clearly more justified, since the previous verses are about those Muslims who remain faithful in fighting despite those who might turn away from Allah (as unbelievers) if Mohammed were to be killed in a fight. There is no context of general doing good to others (as in the Shakir translation), let along to all mankind. So 3:148 does not seem to teach an ethic of love toward all mankind.  Conclusion:  no

"Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, "We are Christians": because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant. 5:082 Yusuf Ali translation

Observations: Other translations similar. This verse does not speak of love of Muslims for others, however. Yet is does at least show some d├ętente in the case of humble Christians. Yet, elsewhere Christians are lumped with other unbelievers.   
Conclusion:  no, but detente seems the intent (a far cry from the aggression we are seeing from the extremists today.)

"It may be that God will grant love (and friendship) between you and those whom ye (now) hold as enemies. For God has power (over all things); And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 60:007 [Yusuf Ali translation]
"God forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for God loveth those who are just. 60:008

Observations: At first these two verses seem to be teaching tolerance or even the possibility of friendship after conflict for former enemies of all classes. But the next verse, 60:009 clarifies the limits:

"God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong. 60:009

Observations: you can see the ethic is tolerate or even have a level of friendship with fellow Muslims who war with them. And you can see that there is no friendship allowed for those who have ever warred with them over their faith.  

Is there a group in the middle--religiously neutral enemies that were neither Muslim, or of others faiths?  Possible but not likely.  Elsewhere it seems that there are no such individuals on earth who are simply religiously “neutral” by Koran standards. But one way or another, this tolerance and friendship after conflict is not allowed for those who would fight them on religious grounds. 

Contrast this with the New Testament ethic of “love your enemies and do good to them who oppose you.” Conclusion:  no

And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive, 76:008

Observations: This verse cannot be directed to the general poor of the world since four verses earlier, in 76:004, it said,

“Lo! We have prepared for disbelievers manacles and carcans and a raging fire.” 

Obviously only the poor among the Muslims are in view. Furthermore these “righteous” who feed their own Muslim poor are told to say that the motive is, "We only fear a Day of distressful Wrath from the side of our Lord."  

Not love as the motive.

And the following verses promise rewards for this charity in the afterlife: “And because they were patient and constant, He will reward them with a Garden and (garments of) silk.” 76:012. 

So even this charity to fellow Muslims is said to be for love of Allah, fear of his wrath, and promise of reward, but not love for fellow man—which is not even listed as a motive in 76:008 or the following verses.  

No doubt love of fellow man may well be in the hearts of individual Muslims. But my point is that the Koran does not enjoin that motive here as an ethic.  Conclusion:  no

On the subject of Allah’s love:

And He is Oft-Forgiving, full of love (towards the pious who are real true believers of Islamic Monotheism). 85:014 in the Hilali-Khan translation.

Observations: Other orthodox translations do not contain the words in parentheses. But HK clarifies—perhaps accurately, perhaps not, I’m sure there is debate in the Islamic world—that God only loves and forgives true Islamic believers. 

The hard line stance of the Hilali-Khan does reflect the viewpoint of a significant population within Islam:  that God does not “love the world of humanity,” in general; He only loves those who love Him and believe in Him by Islamic standards.  In truth, there are no shortage of verses in the Koran speaking of Allah hating the unbeliever.  

And there are no counterbalancing verses in the Koran equivalent to the New Testament's John 3:16 where God sacrificially loves the entire world, and offers his own Son for it's salvation, despite His hating sin.  Conclusion:  no

That’s it!
Above are all the verses that use the word "love" where it could even possibly speak of a general ethic of loving one’s neighbors regardless of their beliefs. 

The result was surprising to me.  

I honestly thought the outcome of this concordance search would be different.  I assumed before my study that the Koran must have a lot of unconditional love oriented teachings and ethics toward all fellow men.  It does not.  

I had actually hoped to compile a listing of those verses in order to say, "See, you extremists, you should follow your own Koran."

This doesn't mean that Muslims are unloving, only that unconditional love for fellow man is not an explicit teaching of the Koran.  Or, if it is, it is not prominent.  If you are a Muslim reading this, please suggest some verses, but please limit it to the actual Koran--not to commentary or traditions written later, as my original study was only of the Koran itself.

The New Testament "love'

The starkness of the Koran's omission of love of all fellow men can only be seen clearly by it's contrast to the New Testament.

Here are the results of the same type of concordance search of the New Testament in the NIV translation for the word "love": 

"You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you,"  (Matthew 5:43-44)

This is the very first hit on the search for the word "love" of the New Testament.  Right off the bat you see the difference.  The motive for loving our enemies is given in the next verse:   

"so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven" (Mt. 5:45). 

That is, we are to be like God in loving even those who hate us.

"If you love those who love you, what reward will you get? Are not even the tax collectors doing that?"  Matthew 5:46

v. 46 enjoins us to love even those who do not love us.  But Allah's love in the Koran does not rise above the level of loving those who love you.  It is the equivalent of "even tax collectors" or sinners.   The God of the New Testament loves all, and seeks to win sinners over.

"You have heard that it was said, 'Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.'  But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also."
Matthew 5:38-39

[When Jesus was asked, "And who is my 'neighbor'? He replied with a parable that depicted a hated Samaritan as proving to be a good neighbor when he cared for a man he found beaten and robbed, in contrast to a Jewish priest and scribe who had passed by the man earlier without helping.]

[NB:  I've omitted Mark's repetitions of Jesus' sayings.]

"But I say to you who hear,  love your enemies, do good to those who hate you."  (Luke 6:27)

"But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men."

[NB:  Notice the connection here between the Christian's love for their enemies mirroring their heavenly Father's love for those who are ungrateful and evil.  It says the mark of sonship is being like the Father in love.  Neither of these ethics of love are found in the Koran.  Muslims are never told to love their enemies who hate them or do good to them.  And Allah is not said to love even ungrateful or evil men.'  Keep in mind, God does not love their evilness, but as Peter says, "is patient, desiring all men to repent and come to a knowledge of the truth."] 

"For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.  (John 3:16)

[NB:  This is considered one of the central verses of the New Testament.  It is "the Gospel in a nutshell" and speaks of God's unconditional love for His creation which is fallen and needs redemption.  His love is so great that He gave His only Son, Jesus, to die to pay the penalty for mankind's sin--which was death.] 

"and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.  For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly."   Romans 5:5-6

[NB:  the same sacrificial love that God had for the lost world is poured out into the heart of the Christian, not only to benefit from it, but to share that love with the world in the same way.] 

"But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us."   Romans 5:8

[NB:  here is one of the most important verses on the nature of God's unconditional love.  Christ died for the world before they believed in Him, while we were "still sinners."  Paul had said in the [previous verse, one might die for a good man, but who would die for a sinner?  But that's what Christ did.] 

"Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse."  Romans 12:14 

"Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone."   Romans 12:17-19

[NB: Paul was writing to believers living in Rome and surrounded by Gentiles and unbelievers when he wrote to be at peace with everyone.  This is not just a "one another" command toward fellow believers.]

Paul continues:

"Do not take revenge, my friends, but leave room for God's wrath, for it is written: "It is mine to avenge; I will repay," says the Lord. On the contrary:
   "If your enemy is hungry, feed him;
      if he is thirsty, give him something to drink.
   In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head."  Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good."

[NB:  The "burning coals" is not judgment, but refers to the shame a person who has treated someone harshly might feel at having kindness returned.  And Paul says that any "vengeance" is not the Christian's to take. If God wants to, He can punish.  But the Christian's goal here is to "overcome evil by doing good."  Incidentally, Paul was quoting the Old Testament about feeding your enemy (Prov. 25:21-22).  Incidentally one finds a significant ethic of mercy for "the stranger" or the outsider in the Old Testament despite the strict separation that was to be maintained socially and religiously in Israel.]

"Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfillment of the law."  Romans 13:10

[NB:  It is clear from the parable of the Good Samaritan that Jesus considered everyone our "neighbor"--that being the entire point of that parable, to explain the application of "love your neighbor as yourself."  The Jews did not like the Samaritans, but Jesus told a story of how an "evil" Samaritan help a man who had been robbed and left to die when a Jewish priest and a Levite passed by him.  Jesus' point was that the Samaritan was a true neighbor, though not a kinsman.]

"If I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but do not have love, I have become a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal."
1 Corinthians 13:1

"If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and all knowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing."  1 Corinthians 13:2

"And if I give all my possessions to feed the poor, and if I surrender my body to be burned, but do not have love, it profits me nothing."  1 Corinthians 13:3

"Love never fails; but if there are gifts of prophecy, they will be done away; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be done away."  1 Corinthians 13:8

"And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love."  1 Corinthians 13:13

"Let all that you do be done in love."  1 Corinthians 16:14

"For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but faith working through love."  Galatians 5:6

"But the goal of our instruction is love from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith."   1 Timothy 1:5

"For God has not given us a spirit of timidity, but of power and love and discipline."  2 Timothy 1:7

"But when the kindness of God our Savior and His love for mankind appeared,"  Titus 3:4

[NB:  Notice here Paul directly speaks of God's love for all mankind, and that being the motive for His sending the Savior.] 

"The one who does not love does not know God, for God is love."  1 John 4:8

"This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him."  1 John 4:9

"This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins."  1 John 4:10

"We love, because He first loved us."  1 John 4:19

[NB:  John says the source of the Christians love for others is God's own love.]

That's not every verse in the New Testament that teaches on the ethic of love for all mankind.  There are dozens of more passages that could be invoked.  For example: 

"Therefore, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, especially to those who belong to the family of believers."  (Galatians 5:10)

Paul explicitly says to do good to both the unbeliever and the believer.

The clear teaching is that as a Christian grows spiritually to become more like Christ he takes on the character of God, which is love.

Now admittedly, even with all this explicit teaching of love for all mankind, Christianity has at times defected in major ways from that ethic.  But imagine the position of the Muslim who does not have explicit teachings of a general love for all mankind!  Christianity has had to be unkind in defiance of clear biblical teachings in the New Testament.  But Islam seems to have to few such restrictions from the Koran itself.

This is a stark contrast to the teachings of the Koran. 

Since Muslims in a way accept the Torah and Gospel it is possible for them to derive an ethic of love for all mankind from the latter, but the Koran itself does not help them.  I close with a summary quote, which seems to verify that an ethic of love for all fellow men is simply not in the Koran.

Writing in 1901, long before Israel was reconstituted in the middle east, before the two World Wars, before oil was discovered or even in high demand, Mary Mills Patrick in the International Journal of Ethics (Chicago University Press) wrote of Islam:

"The Koran..." is a book whose "ethics are stern and unrelenting.  They present, however, absolute justice as the standard of morality, from which there can be no departure.  In this presentation there is grandeur, but no softening influences for the seeker after ethical rectitude.  There is no hint of any such element as the beauty of love presented by Plato, or the reality of a spirit world like that in which Jesus lived....the grand ideas of the Koran are the power of justice, the oneness of God, and the exaltation of worship...."

While the Hadith may incorporate a more universal ethic of love for Muslims, the Koran itself omits loving one's enemies, or even one's neighbor in the sense Jesus meant, using the cross cultural example of a Samaritan aiding a Jewish man. 

About a year after the above research I found this article by Farid Mahally posted online with a more technical evaluation, but with similar conclusions.  I don't know anything about the group beyond their "about" web page:

For those acquainted with the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, the Qur'anic commentary of God's love is striking in its paucity, and in its human-like description of God's love to mankind. Jesus said in Luke 6:32 "But if you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them."
If God [Allah] then only loves those who love Him, or do good, or are pure then this love is not above or beyond man's love since man also loves and appreciates such people.


  1. Thanks mate ,,, got here from google because I asked about love in the koran
    Surprised your blog near top of list ,,, but that,s ok

  2. You went deeper than me, but we reached the same conclusion. Thanks for your input.

  3. Really interesting. And chilling...

  4. Your research just used the term love? All of the wonderful quotes you have out above have left out the exceptions to this love. Like in Romans 27 - homosexuals, lesbians, people who have sex before marriage, people whose acts are deemed as being i covetousness, i maliciousness; which is full of envy, who murder, who debate, who deceive, who act with malignity; who whisperer,

    who backbite, who are haters of God, who are despiteful,who are proud, who are boasters, who are inventors of evil things, who are disobedient to parents, who act without understanding, who are covenant breakers, who act without natural affection, who are implacable, who are unmerciful or have taken pleasure as a result of any of these things: are all worthy of death.

    I am not really sure I can feel the love you are talking about.

    1. We are commanded to love those for whom Christ died. Which is everyone. None are righteous (Romans3) in themselves. But love does not mean to approve all behavior or accept all choices. God clearly calls some things sin. You can love someone but not agree with them.

  5. There are vicious/ vengeful quotes that can be observed in all scrpitures.

    I hold that all organized religion is dangerous in the sence that it can be preverted into extremisim and take away individual sence of accountability.

    But i after the recent events in ottawa i also found this page looking for "love" in the koran & although this is still preliminary research my take was that unlike many religions which have outdated intolerant/ vengeful passages that are offset by many more peaceful, rightious, or loving ones. The (orthodox) koran seems to lack any sign of love or tolerence for any who do not absolutely share the same faith. . . The evidence is saddly seen all throughout africa and the middle east.

    1. It's true that anything can be pushed to extremism. While in the middle ages powerful people (kings) took over Christianity they had to ignore the many explicit passages on universal love, peace, etc. But from what I can see the Koran lacks these types of teachings, making it a far shorter step to jihad.

      Is all organized religion dangerous? Looking at the percentage of wars started by any religion it is about 3% according to a very recent secular study. 97% were started by the irreligious. You look at the 20th century wars, they were virtually all started with secular political agendas.

  6. Peace to All and sorry for the length of this response. Really interesting blog and one not being visited by many Muslims I guess (spoiler alert I am one but am not a scholar or expert in Quranic studies or Islamic thought and jurisprudence). My parents always taught me that whenever confronted with anything I disagreed vehemently with I should take a deep breath and put myself in the other person's shoes for a moment. Sound parental advice regardless of race, religion, creed etc Therefore when I stumbled upon this blog with its well documented and logical research into this question I decided to take a step back rather than just giving a knee-jerk reaction as someone whose belief in the Quran as God's final Revelation is unshakeable. Trying to put myself into the author's shoes for a moment (and most of the commenters) I can definitely see the issue : Is Islam through its fundamental Revelation of (what all Muslims universally and unequivocally believe to be) the unchanged word of God a faith that is intolerant of non-believers ? Where is the love and tolerance for those who do not "believe" ? Very relevant questions especially in today's information age when most of us will be absolutely horrified by what ISIS are doing "in the name of Islam" in Syria and Iraq.

    Again not being a scholar I can only give what I consider to be my personal view as someone, who like most human beings is utterly repulsed by the whole ISIS ideology and exasperated that they are using the Quran and history of early Islam after the Prophet to "justify" what they are doing "in the name of Islam".

    Fundamentally you either believe that the Quran is the word of God or you don't. If you don't then much if not all of what I say will be disregarded but just hear me out for a moment if you will. The fact of whether there is a Supreme Creator is debated between those who believe in God and those who do not. Muslims believe this is the final Revelation and that there is only one consistent Message that God has conveyed to mankind throughout our existence on the Earth through a lot of Messengers (Prophets) - more than 120,000 according to Muslim Tradition all the way from Adam who was the first to the Prophet Muhammad who Muslims believe was the last. That is a lot of reminders from God - through Noah, Abraham, David, Solomon, Moses, Jesus (among others) and then finally Muhammad. So in my personal reflection on the issue it is that God is telling us to "believe" and is warning us against not believing. God is not leaving this as an optional extra. He is outlining the reward for doing so and also the punishment for not doing so. It IS a very "uncompromising" position because belief in one God is fundamental and the Message of love, truth, justice etc has clearly not been followed and moreover people have done and continue to do horrendous things in the name of religion. Would we expect His FINAL Message to be any different given all He had sent down before be mis-used in the way that it had been and continues to be ? Now does this mean that Muslims are "commanded" by the Quran to go around murdering in cold blood and beheading all "non-believers" some of whom are themselves Muslims ? I do not believe the Quran commands this and have faith God does not want his believers to do so. For in the same Quran are numerous warnings about the word of God being mis-used and people wilfully perverting the Truth. Surah Al-Kahf 18:103-104 "(Muhammad), tell them, "Should I tell you who will face the greatest loss as a result of their deeds ? It will be those who labour a great deal in this life but without guidance, yet think that they are doing a great many good deeds." I believe in God and believe it is the same and only God that people of all mono-theistic faiths believe in. And before I react to someone who is disagreeing with me I always take that step back and metaphorically borrow their shoes. Call me an infidel ....

  7. Peace & Love From Holy Quran to Jews & Christians

    The Holy Quran say s in Surah Al-Baqarah, chapter 2 Verse 190 as follows:
    “Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, ( not begin hostilities) and transgress not. lo Allah loves not the transgressors (those who begin hostilities, misbehave, do wrong and break the rules) ”
    The verse in so clear, Muslims are clearly prohibited to start fighting. The verse clearly says: “Fight against those who fight against you”.
    Islam loves peace so much, that Allah announces that he does not love transgressors., i.e., ALLAH does not love those who begin fighting and break the rules, etc..


    “And kill them whenever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out..……….” (2/ 191).
    People often quote the first part of the statement i.e. “kill them wherever you find them” ____ The important part of the statement that “ turn them out from where they have turned you out” clearly indicates that the muslins have been asked to kill those people who have EARLIER turned them out.
    Therefore in this verse the order is not to kill innocent people wherever you find them.


    Please read in this regard Surat-ul-MUMTAHINAH, chapter 60 verse 8: “Allah forbids you not that you should deal benevolently and equitably with those who fought not against you on account of your religion nor drove you out from your homes; verily Allah loves the equitable”.


    1) In times of peace I don’t know from history any single event when prophet Muhammad (SAW) ordered his followers to kill Jews and Christians.
    2) Jews and Christians can be guests of Muslims.
    Chapter 5 surah Al-Maidah verse No. 5 says as follows: -
    “…. The food of the people of the scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you, and yours lawful to them. This means that in the time of the Holy Prophet (SAW) the Jews and Christians used to be guests of Muslims and vice versa. Therefore, no peace time killings of Jews and Christians.
    3) Life time love.
    The Holy Quran says in Surah Al-Maidah chapter 5 verse 5 that “…………. (lawful unto you in marriage) are chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians).
    This clearly means that Muslims were not day and night busy in killing Jews and Christians. Can we imagine that the Muslims used to kill their Jewish wives, Jewish fathers and mothers in law).
    4) Peace time relationship.
    Peace time relationship with non Muslims is very beautifully given in the Holy Quran (Surah 16 the Bee verse 125):-
    “Call them into the way of the Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation and argue with them with that which is best”.
    Those Muslims, Jews and Christians who run away from BEST ARGUMENTS should read this verse at least 10 times from the depth of their hearts.